Latest Posts

Basic Linux Commands

This post is to collect some basic linux commands I used while working on some Linux system:
  • Basic Commands
  • Upgrade System
  • Iptable firewalls
  • User and Group
  • Change Interface IP Address 
  • Fold and Disk Commands
  • Cron Job
  • Find Out My Linux Distribution Name and Version
  • PS command
  • VI Command
  • Check Hardware Info
  • Install a software on Linux
  • Use ssh key to encrypt / decrypt files
  • Change Time Zone
  • Add/Remove Route
  • Remove Specific SSH Host Key 

Basic Commands

man : manual
ls :List Directory Contents
pwd :print working directory 

cd :change directory
:Make directory
 locate, which and whereis : four commands to search file / folder in Linux
Linux Developing History
passwd :Password
md5sum :Compute and Check MD5 Message Digest
history :History (Event) Record。
sudo :(super user do)
touch :Update the access and modification times of each FILE to the current time
chmod :change file mode bits
chown :change file owner and group
apt :Advanced Package Tool
dd: Convert and Copy a file
       [email protected]:~# dd if=/home/user/Downloads/debian.iso of=/dev/sdb1 bs=512M; sync
tar : Tape Archive
cal : Calendar
cat : Concatenation. Concatenate (join) two or more plain file and/or print contents of a file on standard output.
grep : searches the given file for lines containing a match to the given strings or words
ps : (Process)
service : command controls the Starting, Stopping or Restarting of a ‘service‘
df : disk usages of file system
du : disk usages
cmp : compare
wget : a free utility for non-interactive (i.e., can work in background) download of files from the Web
gcc : is the in-built compiler for ‘c‘ language in Linux Environment.
g++ is the in-built compiler for ‘C++‘ , the first object oriented programming language.
Java is one of the world’s highly used programming language and is considered fast, secure, and reliable. Most of the the web based service of today runs on java.

sudo : 暂时切换到超级用户模式以执行超级用户权限,提示输入密码时该密码为当前用户的密码,而不是超级账户的密码。不过有时间限制,Ubuntu默认为一次时长15分钟。
su : 切换到某某用户模式,提示输入密码时该密码为切换后账户的密码,用法为“su 账户名称”。如果后面不加账户时系统默认为root账户,密码也为超级账户的密码。没有时间限制。
sudo -i: 为了频繁的执行某些只有超级用户才能执行的权限,而不用每次输入密码,可以使用该命令。提示输入密码时该密码为当前账户的密码。没有时间限制。执行该命令后提示符变为“#”而不是“$”。想退回普通账户时可以执行“exit”或“logout” 。
sudo -i 直接运行sudo命令加-i参数
sudo su 运行sudo命令给su命令提权,运行su命令。
sudo -i 运行结果 PWD=/root
sudo su 运行结果 PWD=/home/用户名(当前用户主目录)

Upgrade System

For Ubuntu:
apt-get -y update & apt-get -y upgrade & apt-get -y dist-upgrade

for CentOS
yum - y update & yum -y upgrade

Iptable firewalls

2.1 Delete IPtable firewall rules

[[email protected] ~]# /sbin/iptables -L -v -n
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
 pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination         
  74M   53G RH-Firewall-1-INPUT  all  --  *      *             

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
 pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination         
    0     0 RH-Firewall-1-INPUT  all  --  *      *             

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT 18M packets, 1069M bytes)
 pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination         

Chain RH-Firewall-1-INPUT (2 references)
 pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination         
 5462  734K ACCEPT     all  --  lo     *             
46700 2228K ACCEPT     icmp --  *      *             icmp type 255 
    0     0 ACCEPT     esp  --  *      *             
    0     0 ACCEPT     ah   --  *      *             
    0     0 ACCEPT     udp  --  *      *           udp dpt:5353 
    0     0 ACCEPT     udp  --  *      *             udp dpt:631 
  719 34592 ACCEPT     tcp  --  *      *             tcp dpt:631 
  63M   52G ACCEPT     all  --  *      *             state RELATED,ESTABLISHED 
 3094  150K ACCEPT     tcp  --  *      *             state NEW tcp dpt:22 
  10M 1029M REJECT     all  --  *      *             reject-with icmp-host-prohibited

[[email protected] ~]# /sbin/service iptables save
Saving firewall rules to /etc/sysconfig/iptables: [  OK  ]
[[email protected] ~]# /sbin/service iptables stop
Flushing firewall rules: [  OK  ]
Setting chains to policy ACCEPT: filter [  OK  ]
Unloading iptables modules: [  OK  ]
[[email protected] ~]# /sbin/iptables -L -v -n
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
 pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination      

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
 pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination      

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
 pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination      
[[email protected] ~]# /sbin/service iptables start
Flushing firewall rules: [  OK  ]
Setting chains to policy ACCEPT: filter [  OK  ]
Unloading iptables modules: [  OK  ]
Applying iptables firewall rules: [  OK  ]
Loading additional iptables modules: ip_conntrack_netbios_ns [  OK  ]

Or we can use the following command or script to stop the rules:

echo "Saving current firewall rules at /root/current.firewall file..."
iptables-save > /root/current.firewall
echo "Stopping firewall and allowing everyone..."
iptables -F
iptables -X
iptables -t nat -F
iptables -t nat -X
iptables -t mangle -F
iptables -t mangle -X
iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT

2.2. Changing Debian IPTABLES Rules To Survive Reboot
2.2.1. iptables scripts to enhance the rules at /usr/local/scripts/rc.iptables during a reboot
Linux1~# cat /etc/init.d/iptables

if [ ! -x /sbin/iptables ]; then
        exit 0

start() {
        if [ -f $IPTABLES_CONFIG ]; then
            iptables -F
            iptables -X
            echo $"Applying iptables firewall rules: "
            touch /var/lock/subsys/iptables

stop() {
        iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT
        iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
        iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT
        iptables -F
        iptables -X
        rm -f /var/lock/subsys/iptables

case "$1" in


        echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|restart}"
        exit 1

exit 0

Linux1~# vi /usr/local/scripts/rc.iptables

Linux1~# /etc/init.d/iptables restart

Linux1~#iptables -L -v -n | more

2.2.2. using iptables-restore and iptables-save to edit iptables rules
iptables-save > /etc/iptables.test.rule

editor /etc/iptables.test.rule
iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.test.rule
iptables-save > /etc/iptables.up.rule
editor /etc/network/if-pre-up.d/iptables

Add these lines to iptables file:
                  /sbin/iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.up.rule

The iptables file under 
/etc/network/if-pre-up.d/ needs to be executable so change the permissions:
                    chmod +x /etc/network/if-pre-up.d/iptables

Note: What I found is in some old Debian system, method b does not work. But method a works all the time.

User and Group

[[email protected] ~]# useradd test1
[[email protected] ~]# passwd test1
Changing password for user test1.
New UNIX password:
Retype new UNIX password:
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.

[[email protected] ~]# usermod -a -G root test
[[email protected] ~]# id test
uid=501(test) gid=501(test) groups=501(test),0(root) context=root:system_r:unconfined_t:s0-s0:c0.c1023
[[email protected] ~]# groups
root bin daemon sys adm disk wheel
[[email protected] ~]# users
root root
[[email protected] ~]# groupadd network

[[email protected] ~]# groups
root bin daemon sys adm disk wheel
[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/group
[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/passwd
xfs:x:43:43:X Font Server:/etc/X11/fs:/sbin/nologin

Change Interface IP Address

  • Temporary:
    • ifconfig eth1 netmask up
Restart the networking service, enter:
# /etc/init.d/network restart

Fold and Disk Commands

[[email protected] var]# rm -r dbbackup/ -f
[[email protected] var]# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/hda3             7.6G  7.3G     0 100% /
/dev/hda1             244M   12M  219M   6% /boot
tmpfs                 504M     0  504M   0% /dev/shm
/dev/hdb1             197G  197G     0 100% /data

[[email protected] var]# du -s
4779468 .

Cron Job

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo su -
[[email protected] ~]# crontab -l
@daily scp -r find /var/netscreen/dbbackup/ -mtime -1 -type d -print [email protected]:/data
@daily mv /root/CP_MGMT_*.tgz /data/backup/cp/

[email protected]:~# crontab -e
no crontab for root - using an empty one

Select an editor.  To change later, run 'select-editor'.
  1. /bin/nano        <---- easiest
  2. /usr/bin/vim.basic
  3. /usr/bin/vim.tiny
  4. /bin/ed

Choose 1-4 [1]: 1
crontab: installing new crontab

# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Each task to run has to be defined through a single line
# indicating with different fields when the task will be run
# and what command to run for the task
# To define the time you can provide concrete values for
# minute (m), hour (h), day of month (dom), month (mon),
# and day of week (dow) or use '*' in these fields (for 'any').#
# Notice that tasks will be started based on the cron's system
# daemon's notion of time and timezones.
# Output of the crontab jobs (including errors) is sent through
# email to the user the crontab file belongs to (unless redirected).
# For example, you can run a backup of all your user accounts
# at 5 a.m every week with:
# 0 5 * * 1 tar -zcf /var/backups/home.tgz /home/
# For more information see the manual pages of crontab(5) and cron(8)
# m h  dom mon dow   command
0 4   *   *   *    /sbin/shutdown -r +8

so the line

  0 4   *   *   *    /sbin/shutdown -r +8

would reboot your system every day at 4:08am. (4:00am + 8 minutes)

There are 5 fields before the actual command:

field                   allowed values
-----                   --------------
minute               0-59
hour                  0-23
day of month    1-31
month               1-12 (or names)
day of week      0-7 (0 or 7 is Sun, or use names)

Run a command once/week scheduled Saturday morning at 6am:

0 6 * * sat /path/to/command
0 6 * * 6 /path/to/command

Note: Website to write a proper cron job . can provide cron job monitor service. For example, reboot httpd service every four hour: 

[[email protected] log]# vi /etc/crontab 


# For details see man 4 crontabs

# Example of job definition:
# .---------------- minute (0 - 59)
# |  .------------- hour (0 - 23)
# |  |  .---------- day of month (1 - 31)
# |  |  |  .------- month (1 - 12) OR jan,feb,mar,apr ...
# |  |  |  |  .---- day of week (0 - 6) (Sunday=0 or 7) OR sun,mon,tue,wed,thu,fri,sat
# |  |  |  |  |
# *  *  *  *  * user-name command to be executed
0 */4 * * * root sudo service httpd restart && curl -sm 30[email protected]/reboot_httpd_4h?c=0_*/4_*_*_*

Find Out My Linux Distribution Name and Version

[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/*-release
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 5.5 Beta (Tikanga)

[[email protected] ~]# cat /proc/version
Linux version 2.6.18-186.el5 ([email protected]) (gcc version 4.1.2 20080704 (Red Hat 4.1.2-46)) #1 SMP Wed Jan 27 18:14:15 EST 2010

Linux1:~# cat /proc/version
Linux version 2.6.26-2-amd64 (Debian 2.6.26-27) ([email protected]) (gcc version 4.1.3 20080704 (prerelease) (Debian 4.1.2-25)) #1 SMP Wed Sep 21 03:36:44 UTC 2011

[[email protected] ~]# lsb_release -a
LSB Version:    :core-3.1-ia32:core-3.1-noarch:graphics-3.1-ia32:graphics-3.1-noarch
Distributor ID: RedHatEnterpriseServer
Description:    Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 5.5 Beta (Tikanga)
Release:        5.5
Codename:       Tikanga

Linux1:~# lsb_release -a
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: Debian
Description:    Debian GNU/Linux 5.0.9 (lenny)
Release:        5.0.9
Codename:       lenny

uname = (Unix Name),

[[email protected] ~]# uname -a
Linux Linux01p 2.6.18-186.el5 #1 SMP Wed Jan 27 18:14:15 EST 2010 i686 i686 i386 GNU/Linux

[[email protected] ~]# uname -mrs
Linux 2.6.18-186.el5 i686

PS command

Display the top 5 processes consuming most of the cpu:

[[email protected]]# ps aux --sort=-pcpu | head -5
admin     3935 14.9  1.0  33032 10344 ?        Ss   09:27   5:13 /bin/confd
admin     3941  5.0 58.1 559724 556864 ?       Ss   09:27   1:46 /bin/monitord
admin     4215  1.4  3.6 251040 35412 ?        Ssl  09:28   0:28 cpd

admin     3937  0.7  0.2  26076  2808 ?        Ssl  09:27   0:15 /bin/searchd

VI Command

Cut and paste:
  • Position the cursor where you want to begin cutting.
  • Press v to select characters (or uppercase V to select whole lines).
  • Move the cursor to the end of what you want to cut.
  • Press d to cut (or y to copy).
  • Move to where you would like to paste.
  • Press P to paste before the cursor, or p to paste after.

Check Hardware Info

For CPU:
$ cat /proc/cpuinfo
$ lscpu

For Memory :$ free -m (give you result by MB)
$ cat /proc/meminfo

For HDD:$ df -h (give you human readable result)
$ sudo fdisk -l
$ hdparm -i /dev/device (for example sda1, hda3...)

Install/Uninstall a software on Linux

For Red Hat/Fedora:
$ yum install firefox

If you are using Red Hat Enterprise Linux, it happens that the package you are looking for is in EPEL, so you can install that:
sudo rpm -Uvh

and then you can:
yum install ncdu.

For Ubuntu ( run this as root ) :
# apt-get install firefox

For Debian/Ubuntu

# aptitude install firefox

Change Time Zone


tzselect  - "which opens a gui in terminal"


sudo cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Canada/Eastern /etc/localtime

"Which will set timezone to EST or EDT."

[email protected]:/var/log/apache2$ timedatectl list-timezones | grep Toronto
[email protected]:/var/log/apache2$ sudo timedatectl set-timezone America/Toronto
sudo: unable to resolve host ip-10-1-1-50
[email protected]:/var/log/apache2$ date
Fri Sep 29 22:09:11 EDT 2017

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo su
[[email protected] ec2-user]# mv /etc/localtime /root/localtime.old
[[email protected] ec2-user]# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Toronto /etc/localtime
[[email protected] ec2-user]# date
Fri Sep 29 22:11:00 EDT 2017
[[email protected] ec2-user]#

Add/Remove Route

LinuxSvr:~# cat /etc/network/interfaces
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).

# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# The primary network interface
allow-hotplug eth0
iface eth0 inet static
        # dns-* options are implemented by the resolvconf package, if installed
        dns-search accounts.intern gdc.intern intern
        #up route add -net gw
        #up route add -net gw
        #up route add -net gw

Remove Specific SSH Host Key

If you have remote server system has changed, your ssh session might failed because ssh fingerprint is not matching what you have now for that host. To fix this issue, you will just need to remove existing host's fingerprint. 

users-Mac-mini:~ user$ ssh -lroot
Someone could be eavesdropping on you right now (man-in-the-middle attack)!
It is also possible that a host key has just been changed.
The fingerprint for the ECDSA key sent by the remote host is
Please contact your system administrator.
Add correct host key in /Users/user/.ssh/known_hosts to get rid of this message.
Offending ECDSA key in /Users/user/.ssh/known_hosts:4
ECDSA host key for has changed and you have requested strict checking.
Host key verification failed.
users-Mac-mini:~ user$ vim ~/.ssh/known_hosts 
Move your cursor to the right line and hit
then save it.
dd command in vi / vim is to delete whole line


No comments